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Room 3 – Equine Stream, brought to you by Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health

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Session Program
7:30 pm
Introduction: Ulcerative keratitis is a common condition in equine practice. The objective of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance patterns of microbial flora residing on the ocular surface of horses with ulcerative keratitis in the Hunter Valley, Australia.

Materials and Methods: Medical records of horses diagnosed with ulcerative keratitis from 2014 to 2020 were reviewed. Information was collected regarding age, sex, breed, clinical manifestations, prior treatment, outcome, microbial swab cytology, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results: Medical records from 123 horses were evaluated (124 eyes). Seventy-five samples yielded bacterial growth (60%) and four samples yielded fungal growth (3%). Seventy-two horses (58%) received topical antibiotic therapy prior to microbial swab culture, and of these horses, forty-one (57%) yielded bacterial growth. Gram positive (84%) organisms were more common than Gram negative (16%). The most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococcus spp. (49/85, [58%]), Bacillus spp. (10/85, [12%]), and Staphylococcus spp. (9/85, [11%]). Antimicrobial resistance was found towards ofloxacin (4/57, [7%]), chloramphenicol (14/65, [21%]), tetracycline (18/59, [31%]), tobramycin (31/58, [53%]), gentamicin (31/54, [57%]) and neomycin (39/65, [60%]).

Relevance to Australian clinical equine practice: Gram positive bacteria were the dominant microorganisms on the corneal surface of horses with ulcerative keratitis. Horses with ulcerative keratitis were resistant to one or more topical antimicrobials, most commonly aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and chloramphenicol. Knowledge of the microbial flora and their antimicrobial susceptibility for each geographical region is important for guiding empirical therapy and increasing the chance of a positive case outcome in horses with ulcerative keratitis.

7:45 pm
Laminitis is a debilitating clinical syndrome of lameness due to hoof pain that equine practitioners are very familiar with. However, it has only been in the last decade that distinct causes of laminitis have been well defined and the importance of endocrine causes of laminitis, including laminitis associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) have been understood.

This presentation aims to review: 
1: Current best practice in diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID)
2: Current best practice in diagnosis of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)
3: Why diagnosis of underlying endocrine disease is important in directing laminitis management, both in differentiating the primary disease process and in determining the laminitis risk.

8:15 pm
Once you have made a diagnosis of endocrinopathic laminitis, it is important to use that information to guide treatment of the acute laminitis episode as well as to guide long term management to prevent recurrence. This presentation aims to review:
  1. Management of the acute case including managing the pain, providing hoof support and preventing further damage as well as immediate endocrine treatment considerations.
  2. Management of the endocrine laminitis case after the acute episode to prevent recurrence.
  3. Monitoring versus diagnosis of insulin dysregulation and laminitis risk.

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