Recognizing the importance of performing biopsy along with the appropriate biopsy techniques (incisional vs. excisional) for any oral “lumps and bumps” will be one of the main goals for this lecture. In addition, we will also cover different types of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic oral growths that are commonly found in our canine and feline patients including their clinical behaviour. For the neoplastic oral lesions, the presentation will focus on the different types of odontogenic oral tumors such as peripheral odontogenic fibroma, canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma, odontoma, and others. Their classifications will be thoroughly discussed along with their cell origins as this knowledge is crucial for clinicians to determine the appropriate treatment options and management following the histopathological diagnosis. Common non-neoplastic oral tumors (also known as reactive lesions) such as gingival hyperplasia, focal fibrous hyperplasia, and pyogenic granuloma will be also discussed in this lecture. At the end of this lecture, clinicians will also be aware of the reason why the general term “epulis” shall not be used in clinical cases!