The negative impact of psychological stress on the health and welfare of animals is well documented. The detrimental long-term effects of chronic stress on individual animals is known and the evidence for inter-generational epigenetic effects continues to grow. Although veterinarians, producers and other people working with cattle have some knowledge of bovine behaviour through experience and advice, there is often very little education provided in this area, despite a wealth of research. An understanding of normal cattle behaviour can help people working with these animals know how to manage them so that stress is minimised, safety is improved, and growth and production are optimal. This presentation aims to improve understanding of cattle perception, social needs and the normal bovine behavioural responses to danger. There are untapped opportunities in the handling and management of cattle to minimise stress and its impacts.