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Session - Cattle - 75.0 mins - Room 2
Livestock clientele are increasingly expecting increased diagnostic capability from veterinarians. The first ancillary diagnostic testing that generally follows the physical examination are the complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry. This testing can help further define and refine findings from the physical examination and begin to direct specific or supportive therapy or indicate the need for additional diagnostic testing. The goal for this session is for the attendee to interpret the the results of the CBC and chemistry of ruminants. We will focus on areas in which interpretation for ruminants differs from that of other species, including variation in neutrophil activity and ratios, blood urea nitrogen metabolism, creatinine, chloride, and magnesium. Case examples will be provided to facilitate interpretation and application. Treatment options for replacing and managing electrolyte and macro mineral abnormalities will be included. 
Abdominal distention is a common presenting clinical sign in ruminants. Cattle are susceptible to a variety of abdominal syndromes including esophageal obstruction, free gas and frothy bloat, omasal obstruction, abomasal outflow obstruction and displacement, intussusception, and other intestinal disease. Not all abdominal distention is the same and critical evaluation of the abdomen from a distance can provide important initial clues as to the source of disease. The most critical physical examination parameters for evaluating animals with abdominal disease will be reviewed and interpreted, along with the various abdominal shapes. Ancillary diagnostic techniques including rumen fluid analysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry, abdominocentesis and diagnostic ultrasound will be discussed. Vagal indigestion syndrome will be among the disease syndromes reviewed. General therapeutic principles for abdominal disease will be reviewed, including antimicrobial selection, fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory and analgesic therapy. Placement of a field-friendly rumenostomy will also be reviewed. 
Session - Integrative - 75.0 mins - Room 3
This paper explores India’s ancient herbal veterinary tradition, how it has developed into a multi-million-dollar industry, and some evidence-based therapies.
 
India’s herbal and Ayurvedic veterinary medical tradition is more than 4000 years old and the tradition is thriving today. India’s national network of vet hospitals and dispensaries is the first on record (2300 BCE) and vastly precedes European traditions. Aspects of this traditional medical system are taught in vet schools, are found in most areas of India, and used extensively by subsistence and commercial farmers and pet owners. The veterinary herbal industry is estimated to be worth eight million AUD (26% of the national veterinary pharmaceutical industry). 
 
This paper will explore the foundations of India’s Ayurvedic and herbal traditions and the socio-economic factors that have caused it to thrive in contemporary times alongside biomedical pharmaceuticals. Vets are taught plural medicine at university, viewing herbs, nutraceuticals, Ayurveda and biomedicine as important strategies in animal health care. The implications of this for the veterinary industry in India and Australia will be discussed, and some evidence-based therapies described. 
 
Session - Queensland Division - 105.0 mins - Room 1
This presentation will discuss the causes of emerging infectious diseases in small animals and will focus on recent discoveries of new and introduced vector-borne infections in Australia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by the brown dog tick, was detected in dogs living in northern Western Australia in May 2020, and represents a serious threat to the Australian canine population, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where the vector tick is abundant. Canine hepatozoonosis was discovered in a small number of dogs, all Maremma sheepdogs or their crosses, in central Queensland. Other novel piroplasms, potentially able to infect dogs and cats, have also been described in wildlife ticks removed from companion animals. These example remind veterinarians in practice about the importance travel history, proactive ectoparasite prophylaxis and to remain vigilant for unusual disease presentations.
Emerging infectious diseases can have major impacts on wildlife including causing severe decline and extinction. For potentially emerging pathogens, sufficient data on prior absence (or a prior difference in disease dynamics) are frequently lacking for wildlife. Improved surveillance, particularly for neglected host taxa, geographical regions and infectious agents, would enable more effective management should emergence occur. Exposure to domestic sources of infection and human-assisted exposure to exotic wild sources were identified as the two main drivers of emergence across host taxa; the domestic source was primary for fish while the exotic wild source was primary for other taxa. There was generally insufficient evidence for major roles of other hypothesized drivers of emergence.
Session - Small Animal - 105.0 mins - Room 2
Pre-Operative Assessment of Brachycephalic Dogs  
It is not possible to assess the airways – other than the nares, in a conscious dog. A complete assessment of brachycephalic dogs prior to surgery is essential for attaining the best possible outcome and also in order to give the animal’s owners the most accurate prognosis. 
Prior to surgery we recommend the following assessment be undertaken:
Pedigree – record of the dog’s pedigree is essential for information gathering purposes. 
History – a thorough clinical history including diet, previous and current illness and medications. 
Physical examination – include auscultation of the sinuses, larynx, pharynx as well as the thorax.
Neurological examination – essential due to the high incidence of hemivertebrae and encephalopathies. 
Haematology / biochemistry / blood gasses – biochemical and haematological analysis prior to anaesthesia is essential prior to any anaesthetic induction.
Ophthalmological examination – brachycephalic dogs have many eye issues
Musculoskeletal examination – many orthopaedic conditions are commonly seen in brachycephalic dogs – in particular medial patella luxation and hip dysplasia.  
Imaging minimum database is thoracic radiology however assessment by whole body CT is our preferred imaging modality
 
Once all data is available a veterinarian can develop an assessment of the risk of brachycephalic surgery and have a discussion with the owner of the dog about these risks so that informed consent may be obtained. 
Anaesthetic and Surgical Considerations of Brachycephalic Dogs
 
As previously advised, it is our preference to undertake definitive corrective procedures at the same time as assessment and examination under anaesthesia. Otherwise, anaesthetic recovery in a dog with compromised airways may be problematic. Screening blood testing – biochemistry and haematology are strongly recommended. An IV catheter is always placed. In healthy animals we use a pre-med of - Methadone – 0.2-0.3 mg/kg and Medotomidine 3-5 µg/kg
Patients are pre-oxygenated for 10 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia – we find this simple step significantly improves outcomes.  
Induction at Veterinary Specialist Services is by Alfaxalone – 1-2mg/kg – to effect.  
Following assessment of the upper airways and chonae animals are intubated with a cuffed endotracheal tube and anaesthesia is maintained with Isoflurane 1-2% and Oxygen. 
Surgical Procedures: 
The most common surgical procedures undertaken (in order of procedure) are: 
Resection of the soft palate
Resection of oedematous laryngeal ventricles
Removal of tonsils
Nasal alarplasty  
It is essential to note that each animal is an individual and not all animals require all procedures while some require alternate surgical options.  
Removal of nasal turbinates is never performed at the time of initial surgery. 
Postoperative Management 
The animal must be closely monitored for the next 24-48 hours. At Veterinary Specialist Services / Animal Emergency Services we have a dedicated nurse cage side AT ALL TIMES. In my opinion it is negligent to leave an animal unattended in the 24 hours following BAS surgery.  
Once surgery is completed and other BAS associated problems have been treated 1-2 folded swabs are soaked in 20mld Mannitol per swap and a dose of bupivacaine which is attached to a string or tie and placed in the oropharynx.  
Extubation Our preference is to leave the dog intubated for as long as possible. We like the dog to be awake and even standing before extubation. 
Nasal Oxygen We recover all dogs on nasal oxygen. Recently however we have been using paediatric nasal prongs with great success. 
Medication Antibiotics – only used on the basis of culture and sensitivity 
Analgesia Methadone (duration of activity 4-6 hours) is used as part of the pre-med then as required based on pain scoring
Dyspnoea / increased effort As dogs recover – if they start to develop mild dyspnoea and increased effort we use some or all of the following medications:
Medetomidine – this drug has been game changer for us at VSS. We have been using micro doses of medetomidine for the past 5 years. We dilute the 1mg/ml from the bottle with saline to make it 100mg/ml – 1 in 10 dilution. 
 Adrenaline - Adrenaline is administered by nebulizer – 0.4 mg with 5mls NaCl for a 10kg animal Nebulise with saline every 4-6 hours
 Trazadone Particularly in very anxious dogs starting at 2.5-5mg/kg every 6-8 hours – not used with Tramadol 
Maropitant If nauseous – 1mg/kg once daily. 
Omeprazole 1mg/kg every 12 hours PO – for 4-6 weeks post op depending on severity of GIT signs 
Pain relief. 
Oral Bupivacaine lasts 4-5 hours. Once the animal is discharged oral opioids (Tramadol) are dispensed for 5-7 days – unless Trazadone is required in which case we use a Fentanyl patch. I avoid NSAID’s in these animals until they are eating. 
Soft food is usually offered 12 hours after recovery. Owners are advised to avoid any hard food for 2-3 weeks. 
Session - Behaviour - 105.0 mins - Room 3
How to make Veterinary Visits better for your Patients, staff and clients (Part 1)
How to make veterinary visits better for your patients, staff and clients (Part 2)
The negative impact of psychological stress on the health and welfare of animals is well documented. The detrimental long-term effects of chronic stress on individual animals is known and the evidence for inter-generational epigenetic effects continues to grow.    Although veterinarians, producers and other people working with cattle have some knowledge of bovine behaviour through experience and advice, there is often very little education provided in this area, despite a wealth of research. An understanding of normal cattle behaviour can help people working with these animals know how to manage them so that stress is minimised, safety is improved, and growth and production are optimal.    This presentation aims to improve understanding of cattle perception, social needs and the normal bovine behavioural responses to danger. There are untapped opportunities in the handling and management of cattle to minimise stress and its impacts.
#VetFest 2020
VetFest 2020
#VetFest 2020
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